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Alice J. Moultrie



Alice J. Moultrie

About Me

Non-verbal tools: graphs, charts, tables, illustrations

Depending on the genre and the topic, there may be a need to make a point by presenting data or trends in a process. However, these non-verbal or not purely verbal solutions are not typical of the essay genre. Yet, for example, when talking about perceptual illusions, we can make the Müller-Lyer perceptual illusion more visible and understandable by write my paper placing an illustration of it, than if we try to explain to our readers verbally, by describing the position of the lines, the angles of the arrows, etc., what this illusion is.

Graphs can be used to show changes of state, trends of change, as a function of different variables (e.g. time). The graphs are often based on empirical measurements, the data from which, obtained using rigorous and reliable methods, both increase the verifiability and guarantee the scientific nature of our arguments.

Graphs are obviously different from illustrations, even if they are expressed in an abstract, conceptual form.

Reasoning: definitions, use of examples

Reasoning is correct if it is based on formally valid and true premises. Clarity is ensured if our cardinal definitions are explicitly and emphatically introduced, given in a clear form, and subsequently worked with rather than paraphrased. Linguistic solutions often hide formal validity, we must be alert to invalid transitions, and the study of informal logic can be of great help in identifying the latter. Putting the content into argumentative form will help us to organise the middle parts of the paper. Argument structures should be preserved in short versions as well as in more stylistic final wordings. Extensions and digressions enrich, broaden, or even focus the meaning of the premises through their explanations and contextualisation. A frequent request from the reader is for the author to illustrate more abstract formulations with concrete examples. The provision of these also increases the level of verifiability and credibility.


In our continuous text, concepts introduced at some key points, phrases phrased as a qualification, definition or lesson are more important than others. In addition, we want the reader to return to these concepts and topic sentences later. We can visually facilitate this recall by including in our texts so-called highlighting text formats. Whether italicising, underlining or bolding, they can highlight the more important and emphasised elements of a simple text. However, an important rule is to use only one of the three for highlighting in running text. This is usually the italic letter. Underlining is usually reserved for subheadings, and bolding for chapter headings or just the title. It is also important to keep to the correct format when giving the bibliography. Foreign words and quotations in the current text are in italics.

An important rule is not to use too much emphasis, as then nothing is really highlighted. For the really key points, rely on the reader’s memory buy college essays, otherwise you will only dull it.

In running text, avoid changing fonts and sizes. In the case of longer tabulated quotations, use a slightly smaller font size than your running text.

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